The end result may, in many cases, be higher cost or lower quality products for consumers. Worse, a gentlemen`s agreement can be used as a means of promoting discriminatory practices, as in a „network of old boys.“ Despite their informal nature, the violation of a gentlemen`s agreement could have negative consequences on trade relations if a party decides not to keep its promise. A gentlemen`s agreement can also be described as a „gentleman`s agreement“ and can be completed by a handshake or not. A report by the U.S. House of Representatives detailing its United States Steel Corporation investigation stated that in the 1890s there were two general types of associations or bulk consolidations between steel and ferrous interests in which different groups owned ownership, as well as a high degree of independence: the „pool“ and the „Gentleman`s Agreement.“  The latter type lacked a formal organisation to regulate production or prices or forfeiture rules in the event of infringement.  The effectiveness of the agreement relied on members to meet informal commitments.  Under English contract law, an agreement, in order to be binding, must be aimed at establishing legal relations; but in commercial transactions (i.e. agreements that do not exist between family members or friends), there is a legal presumption of „intent to establish legal relations“. In the 1925 case of Rose and Frank Co. v.
JR Crompton – Bros Ltd., however, the House of Lords found that the phrase “ „This regulation is not … a formal or legal agreement … is only a record of the parties` intention „was sufficient to rebut this presumption.  However, there are times – usually in business agreements – when a „gentleman`s agreement“ is concluded (i.e. in the absence of written contracts), but there are also no clear legal mechanisms or other legal mechanisms to ensure that the terms of that agreement are applicable. In these cases, are the terms of a „gentleman`s agreement“ legally binding? Gentlemen`s agreements have often been concluded in international trade and international relations, as well as in most industries. Gentlemen`s agreements were particularly prevalent at the birth of the industrial era and well beyond the first half of the 200th year, as regulations often delayed new business practices. It was found that such agreements were used, among other things, to control prices and limit competition in the steel, iron, water and tobacco industries. Gentlemen`s agreements, because they are informal and often not written, do not have the same legal and regulatory protection as a formal treaty and are therefore more difficult to enforce. Gentlemen`s agreements were a widespread discriminatory tactic, which would have been more common than restrictive alliances to maintain the homogeneity of upper-class neighborhoods and suburbs in the United States.  The nature of these agreements made it extremely difficult to prove or follow them, and they were long after the U.S.
Supreme Court decisions in Shelley/. Kraemer and Barrows v. Jackson.  A source indicates that the gentlemen`s agreements are „probably still in place“ but that their use has declined sharply.  In 1907, Morgan again collaborated with Roosevelt to create a gentlemen`s agreement that would allow Us Steel to acquire its greatest competitor Tennessee Coal and Iron in a tacit and tacit rule that violated the Sherman Act. Gentlemen`s agreements between industry and the U.S. government were common in the 1800s and early 1900s. The Bureau of Corporations, a predecessor of the Federal Trade Commission, was established in 1903 to investigate monopolistic practices.