Napoleon put an end to anarchy and disorder in post-revolutionary France.  However, he was seen by his opponents as a tyrant and usurper.  His critics accuse him of not having been very concerned about the prospect of war and death for thousands of people, of turning his quest for undisputed domination into a series of conflicts throughout Europe, and of ignoring treaties and conventions. His role in the Haitian revolution and his decision to reintroduce slavery in the French overseas colonies were controversial and had an impact on his reputation.  Kléber defeated the Mamlucs in the Battle of Heliopolis in March 1800, and then suppressed an insurrection in Cairo. On June 14, prairial 26, a Syrian student named Suleiman al-Halabi murdered Kléber with a dagger in his heart, chest, left forearm and right thigh. Command of the French army passed to General Menou, who commanded from 3 July to August 1801. Menou`s letter was published on September 6 in Le Moniteur, with the conclusions of the committee responsible for evaluating those responsible for the attack: Napoleon was crowned Emperor Napoleon I on December 2, 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris by Pope Pius VII. On April 1, 1810, Napoleon married the Austrian princess Marie Louise. During his brother`s reign in Spain, he abolished the Spanish Inquisition in 1813. In a private conversation with General Gourgaud during his exile on St.
Helena, Napoleon expressed materialistic views about the origin of man[Note 10] and doubted the divinity of Jesus and stated that it was absurd to believe that Socrates, Plato, Muhammad and Anglicans should be condemned because they are not Catholics. [Note 11] He also said in 1817 to Gourgaud: „I prefer the Muslim religion. There are fewer incredible things in her than ours.  and that „the Muslim religion is the most beautiful of all.“  Napoleon was anointed by a priest before his death.  He returned to Corsica and came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to separate from France and sabotage the French attack on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena in February 1793, where Bonaparte was one of the expedition leaders.  Bonaparte and his family fled in June 1793 due to the split of Paoli in mainland France.  Napoleon used conspiracy to justify the re-establishment of a hereditary monarchy in France with himself as emperor, as Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if Bonapartist succession were enshrined in the Constitution.  Napoleon was elected „Emperor of the French“ in a referendum in November. This vote was not the same and 99.93% voted „yes“ officially. The land battle of Abukir was Bonaparte`s last action in Egypt and partially reinstated his call for French naval defeat at the same location a year earlier.
When the Egyptian campaign stagnated and political instability developed in the homeland, a new phase began in Bonaparte`s career – he felt that he had nothing more to do in Egypt worthy of his ambition and that (as akkon`s defeat had shown), the forces he had left him there were not sufficient for a major expedition out of Egypt. He also foresaw that losses in battle and disease would weaken the army and that it would soon have to capitulate and be captured by its enemies, destroying all the prestige it had gained through its many victories. Bonaparte therefore spontaneously decided to return to France. At the time of the prisoner exchange at Aboukir, and in particular through the Frankfurt Gazette, Sidney Smith had sent him, he was in contact with the British fleet of which he had become aware for the events in France. . . .