Globalising Intellectual Property Rights The Trips Agreement

One of the main consequences of the new opportunities offered by the CDC is that the focus on market share arguments (based on the economic efficiency of IP policies) has shifted to ownership-based arguments, which highlight the role of IP in facilitating technology trade and the emergence of fragmented and specialised technology markets (Ppulber, 2021); Barnett, 2011; Arora, Fosfuri & Gambardella, 2001; Athreye, 1997). The greater the use of specialized markets, the greater the need for intellectual property to enable transactions beyond. This is shown in Figure 2, adapted by Barnett (2011), which illustrates the different IP requirements of integrated and decaying industrial organizational models. The first model in Figure 2 is the classic case of R&D-based innovation to produce a technological product (as in the case of Big Pharma).

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