Under the leadership of President Donald J. Trump, the United States renegotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement and replaced it with an updated and rebalanced agreement that works much better for North America, the Agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada (USMCA), which entered into force on July 1, 2020. The USMCA is a beneficial asset for both parties for North American workers, farmers, ranchers and businesses. The agreement creates more balanced and reciprocal trade, which supports high-paying jobs for Americans and the North American economy is growing. The overall impact of the agricultural agreement between Mexico and the United States is controversial. Mexico has not invested in the infrastructure needed for competition, such as efficient railways and highways. This has led to more difficult living conditions for the country`s poor. Mexican agricultural exports grew by 9.4 per cent per year between 1994 and 2001, while imports increased by only 6.9 per cent per year over the same period.  According to a study by the Journal of International Economics, NAFTA has reduced pollution from the U.S.
manufacturing sector: „On average, nearly two-thirds of the reduction in emissions of coarse fine particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from the U.S. manufacturing sector is due to NAFTA trade liberalization between 1994 and 1998.  The kick-off of a North American free trade area began with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who made the idea part of his campaign by announcing his candidacy for president in November 1979.  Canada and the United States signed the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in 1988, and shortly thereafter, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari decided to address U.S. President George H. W. Bush proposed a similar agreement to make foreign investments after the Latin American debt crisis.  When the two leaders began negotiations, the Canadian government led by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney was concerned that the benefits obtained by Canada through the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement would be undermined by a bilateral agreement between the United States and Mexico and asked to become part of the U.S.-Mexico talks.  Maquiladoras (Mexican assembly plants that register imported components and produce goods for export) have become the emblem of trade in Mexico.
They moved from the United States to Mexico, hence the debate about losing American jobs. Revenues from the maquiladora sector have increased by 15.5% since the creation of NAFTA in 1994.  Other sectors have also benefited from the free trade agreement and the share of exports to the United States. . . .